Barricade is not seen again for the rest of the film after that point. However, as assumed with Scorponok and known of Starscream, he is one of the few Decepticons thought to be alive, since there is no scene in the film depicting his death. He did die in the leaked film script, the comic book and novel, killed shortly after Optimus Prime's motorway battle with Bonecrusher whilst attacking Prime from behind.
From the novelization: "There followed a flurry of furious action that ended only when Optimus flipped the machine clinging to him against a steel-and-cement freeway pillar. The impact cracked and bent the column. It did worse to Barricade, who lay twisted and unmoving."
It is also possible that Barricade's death was cut from the movie due to editing. Writers Roberto Orci and Alex Kurtzman have stated in a recent interview that Barricade's disappearance from the remainder of the film is a "thread for Movie 2"  This explanation runs concurrent with the after-credits scene of Starscream retreating into space after being defeated by the Autobots. Many fans had hoped that Barricade's disappearance would be cleared up in the IMAX release of the film; it was not.